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Glossary
A
ABD
Aged, Blind and Disabled. A Medicaid eligibility category defined as those Ohioans who financially qualify and are 65 or older, blind or who have disabilities.

Access
The assurance that consumers are aware of the local array of mental health services and are afforded the opportunity to receive needed services and supports in a timely manner.

Adult Care Facility (ACF)
Facilities licensed by the Ohio Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services that provide room, board and personal assistance to individuals in need across the state of Ohio.

ACMS
Automated Cost Management System.

Acute
Severe but of short duration, not chronic.

ACT
Assertive Community Treatment.

ADAMH/CMH
Alcohol, drug addiction and mental health/community mental health boards. One of the 50 community mental health boards established by Ohio Revised Code, Chapter 340.03 to provide planning, management and funding of mental health services in Ohio at the local level.

ADC
Aid to Families with Dependent Children. A Medicaid eligibility category also referred to as Ohio Works First (OWF) or TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families).

ADRP
Average Daily Resident Population. Measurement describing hospital utilization.

Advance Directives
A legal means (document) by which a person can specify his/her choice about how he/she will be treated in the event that his/her illness renders him/her incapable of exercising choice.

Advocacy
Activities in support of individuals with mental illness, including rights protection, legal and services assistance, as well as system or policy changes.

AFSCME
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees.

Aged, Blind and Disabled (ABD)
Medicaid eligibility category defined as those Ohioans who financially qualify and are 65 or older, blind or who have disabilities.

Ageism
Myths and misperceptions about older people.

Aid to Families with Dependent Children
A Medicaid eligibility category also referred to as Ohio Works First (OWF) or TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families).

Alternative Education Intiative
A statewide interagency effort to improve school success for high-risk children and youth, including removing barriers to student learning.

AMI
National Alliance for the Mentally Ill of Ohio. An organization dedicated to self-help and family advocacy and improving the lives of those with severe mental illnesses. The organization was built with four cornerstones in mind: support, education, advocacy and research.

AOD
Alcohol or Other Drug services or diagnosis.

Average Daily Resident Population (ADRP)
Measurement describing inpatient hospital utilization.

B

Behavioral health
Describes the combination of mental health and chemical dependency services.

Best practices
Interventions and services that have been evaluated and have demonstrated good outcomes for mental health consumers. In general, best practices are approaches that
1) are judged to be exemplary
2) have been developed or based on systematic processes
3) are designed to produce successful outcomes and
4) have undergone rigorous evaluation and research.

Block grant
Block Grant funds are provided in a lump sum for a broad range of related activities with less precise purposes and are subject to relatively few regulations, with some approval required for expenditure.

Board
One of the 50 community mental health boards established by Ohio Revised Code, Chapter 340.03, to provide local planning, management and funding of mental health services in Ohio at the local level.

Business associate agreement (BAA)
An agreement between a covered entity and a person or organization that performs a function or activity on behalf of a covered entity but is not part of the covered entity's workforce. A business associate can also be a covered entity in its own right.

BVR
Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation within the Opportunities for Ohioans with Disabilities state agency.

D

Delusion
A belief that is false, fanciful or derived from deception. In psychiatry, a false belief strongly held in spite of evidence that it is not true, especially as a symptom of a mental illness.

Dementia
A condition of declining mental abilities, especially memory. Individuals with dementia may have trouble doing things they used to do such as keeping the checkbook, driving a car safely or planning a meal. They often have trouble finding the right word and may become confused when given too many things to do at one time. Individuals with dementia may also experience changes in personality, becoming aggressive, paranoid or depressed.

Depressants
Sedatives that act on the CNS (e.g. to treat anxiety, high blood pressure, tension, etc.)

Depression
An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way a person eats, sleeps, feels about himself or herself, and thinks about things, marked especially by sadness, inactivity, difficulty with thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness and sometimes suicidal thoughts or attempts to commit suicide.

Designer Drug
an analog of a restricted drug that has psychoactive properties.

Detox
Short for detoxification, usually from an addictive drug such as alcohol or heroin. A detox center is designed to promote the recovery of a person from an addiction.

Diagnosable Mental Illness
Any mental illness or mental disorder, including those that have not yet received a formal diagnosis from a medical or mental health professional. Sometimes referred to as a “brain disorder.”

Dissociative Disorder
A disorder marked by a separation from or interruption of a person’s fundamental aspects of waking consciousness, such as personal identity or personal history. The dissociative aspect in any form is thought to be a coping mechanism stemming from trauma of some kind. The individual literally dissociates or separates from a situation or experience that is too traumatic to integrate with the conscious self. There are many forms of dissociative disorders:

Dissociative amnesia: Characterized by blocking out critical information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature. The amnesia may be localized to a specific window of time; selective, allowing the patient to remember only small parts of events that took place in a defined period of time; generalizedto the patient’s entire life; or systematized, in which the loss of memory is related to a specific category of information.

Dissociative fugue: A rare disorder in which an individual suddenly and unexpectedly takes physical leave of his or her surroundings and sets off on a journey of some kind. Individuals in a fugue state are unaware of or confused about their identities. Rarely, these individuals will assume a new identity.

Dissociative identity disorder: Previously known as multiple personality disorder. Individuals with DID have more than one distinct identity or personality state that surfaces on a recurring basis.

Dopamine
An important neurotransmitter (messenger) in the brain.

DSM-IV
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the handbook most often used for diagnosing mental disorders

Dual-Diagnosis
The presence of a substance abuse or chemical dependency diagnosis with a coexisting psychiatric disorder.

DUI
Stands for (driving under influence) (of alcohol or another illicit substance that impairs one's ability to drive)

E

Early Intervention
In mental health, diagnosing and treating mental illnesses early in their development. Studies have shown early intervention can result in higher recovery rates.

Eating Disorder
A serious disturbance in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating. Usually accompanied by feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Eating disorders, which are treatable, usually develop in adolescence or early adulthood and frequently co-occur with other psychiatric disorders such as depression, substance abuse and anxiety disorders. Eating disorders can lead to serious physical health complications including heart
conditions and kidney failure, which may lead to death. The main types of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

Evaluation
Involves a comprehensive assessment that includes a physical exam, medical history, and other tests supervised by a physician specializing in addiction medicine.

Evidence-Based Practice
Refers to treatment guidelines that can be supported by quality clinical research.

F
Families Anonymous (FA)
A self-help organization for families whose lives have been affected by the addiction of a family member. 

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Birth defects/abnormalities in babies of alcoholic and alcohol abusing mothers
H
Halfway House
A residence for those who have completed treatment at a rehabilitation facility but are not yet ready to return to their community. They need daily support to assist them in the restructuring of their lives. Often, this includes assistance in getting a job and gradually living more independently. 

Hallucinogen
Chemical substance that distorts perceptions, sometimes resulting in delusions or hallucinations

Heroin
Semisynthetic drug derived from morphine. Discovered in 1874, it was introduced commercially in 1898 by the Bayer company in Germany. The name heroin was coined from the German heroisch meaning heroic, strong. Heroin is stronger (more potent) than morphine.


I
Indication
In medicine, a condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure advisable.

Intervention
When people whose lives are affected by someone with an addiction disorder confront him or her with their feelings about the behavior and how it has affected them. An intervention is an attempt to get the addict to accept help and go into treatment. The participants in the intervention make all the arrangements for treatment, transportation to, etc. 


L
Long Term Residential Treatment
A treatment program for those who having completed a rehabilitation program are still not ready to return to their communities and maintain a recovery. Similar to a halfway house program, long term residential treatment offers the support and sturcture often needed to control the impulse to relapse. Programs usually run between 3 and 6 months. 

M
Methadone
A long-acting opiate (synthetically produced)

Mentally Ill Chemical Abuser (MICA)
Refers to programs for those who are dually diagnosed

Morphine
A major sedative/pain reliever found in opium


N
Naloxone
An opioid antagonist that blocks the effects of opioid agonists

Naltrexone
A narcotic antagonist that blocks the effects of opioids

Narcotic
A drug that produces sleep/drowsiness and that also relieves pain while being potentially dependence producing

Narcotics Anonymous
A self-help organization of individuals who have recognized their dependency on drugs and are committed to living a life of abstinence. 

Nicotine
An alkaloid (a nitrogen-containing chemical) made by the tobacco plant or produced synthetically. Nicotine has powerful pharmacologic effects (including increased heart rate, heart stroke volume, and oxygen consumption by the heart muscle), as well as powerful psychodynamic effects (such as euphoria, increased alertness, and a sense of relaxation). Nicotine is also powerfully addictive.

NIDA
Stands for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, one of the National Institutes of Health in the U.S., whose mission is to "lead the nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction through support and conduct of research across a broad range of disciplines and rapid and effective dissemination of results of that research to improve drug abuse and addiction prevention, treatment, and policy."


O
Off-Label Use 
Physician-approved use of a drug for uses other than those stated on its label

Opiate
A medication or an illegal drug that is derived from the opium poppy or that mimics the effect of an opiate (a synthetic opiate). Opiate drugs are narcotic sedatives that depress activity of the central nervous system, reduce pain, and induce sleep. Side effects may include oversedation, nausea, and constipation. Long-term use of opiates can produce addiction, and overuse can cause overdose and potentially death. 

Opioids
Opium's synthetic form

Opium
One of the most popular drugs; contained in muscle-relaxers, sleeping pills, and tranquilizers

Outpatient Treatment 
offers daytime and/or evening treatment to adults while they live at home. Various schedules available.

Over-the-Counter Drugs
Legal non-prescription drugs

Oxycodone
A medicine used for relief of moderate to high pain
P
Painkillers
Analgesic substances (opioids and nonopioids)

Partial Agonists
Bind to and activate receptors to a lesser degree than full agonists

Pharmacology
Scientific branch dealing with the study of drugs and their actions

Physical Dependence
an adaptive physiological state that occurs with regular drug use and results in a withdrawal syndrome when drug use stops.

Placebo
A substance with no pharmacological elements that may elicit a reaction because of a patient's mindset

Polysubstance Abuse
Concurrent abuse of more than one substance

Post-Acute Withdrawal Syndrome (PAWS)
Withdrawal symptoms after initial acute withdrawal

Precipitated Withdrawal Syndrome
Can occur when a patient on full-agonist opioids takes an antagonist

Psychiatry
The medical specialty that is concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of mental illness.

Psychoactive Drug
A mind- and behavior-altering substance

Psychological Dependence
One's compulsion to use a psychologically based drug for pleasure; may lead to drug misuse

Psychopharmacology
The study of how drugs affect consciousness, mood, sensation, etc.

Psychosis
A mental disorder characterized by symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations that indicate an impaired conception of reality.

Psychotropic Drug
Any drug that acts on one's psychic experience or mood behavior
R
Rapid Detox
Anesthesia-assisted detoxification (injection of high doses of an opiate antagonist, followed by an infusion of naloxone)

Receptor
Protein on a target cell's membrane or cytoplasm with which a drug interacts

Recidivism
One's return to a negative behavior (relapse) (e.g. drug use)

Recovery
Reducing or ceasing substance abuse; often followed by one's personal life being turned around by way of a supportive environment

Recovery Rates
The percentage of addicted persons undergoing treatment who partake in abstinence in their first year

Recovery Support 
(Continuing Care) is provided to those who complete all phases of prescribed treatment. This extended program is offered and is open to the spouse/significant other.

Relapse Intervention/Prevention
A therapeutic process that interrupts believes and behaviors that result in lifestyle dysfunction

Relapse
Symptom recurrence after a period of sobriety or drug use cessation

Remission
A symptom-free period

Residential Treatment
A drug treatment modality that includes 24-hour medically supervised detoxification followed by ongoing treatment. Patients reside at the treatment center.

Reversed Tolerance
When a lower dose of a drug produces the same desired or observed effect that previously resulted only with higher dosages

Rush 
A surge of euphoric pleasure that rapidly follows administration of a drug
S
Screening
Measurement tool for the extent of one's addiction (e.g., self-completion questionnaire/life-history assessment)

Self-Help Group 
Group of individuals dealing with similar issues that meets to support each other and share helpful information (e.g. AA)

Seratonin 

A neurotransmitter that has been implicated in states of consciousness, mood, depression and anxiety.

Side Effects 
Secondary effects of a drug; these are usually undesirable

Sobriety 
A life free of chemicals or chemical dependency. 

Societal Denial 
Society's denial of the historical value of drug-induced pleasure and euphoria

Steroids 
A group of cyclic, solid unsaturated alcohols (e.g. cholesterol)

Stimulant 
Drugs that act on the CNS, resulting in alertness, excitation, and wakefulness

Sublingual 
Drugs that enter the blood through the membranes under the tongue

Suboxone 
Brand name for buprenorphine in combination with naloxone.

Substance Abuse (Chemical Dependence)
A maladaptive pattern of recurrent substance use that leads to impairment or distress that is clinically significant

Synergism 
The greater effect that results when one takes more than one drug simultaneously

Synthetic

Not naturally-occurring


T
Talc
Dangerous substance used in manufacturing pharmaceuticals

Therapeutic Community
A setting where people with similar issues can meet to support each other's recovery

Therapeutic Dependence
Patients' tendency to demonstrate drug-seeking behaviors because they fear withdrawal symptoms

Therapy 
The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Titration
The gradual adjustment of the amount of a drug

Tolerance
Condition in which one must increase their use of a drug for it to have the same effect

Toxic
Temporary or permanent drug effects that are detrimental to the functioning of an organ or group of organs.

Toxicity 
A degree of poisonousness

Tranquilizers 
A type of drug that can help relieve the symptoms of severe psychosis

Trigger 
Anything that results in psychological and then physical relapse

Twelve Step Programs 
The 12 Steps are the philosophical basis of Alcoholics Anonymous and all Anonymous self-help groups. They are the means by which one can get into recovery and achieve a sober life. The first step is to acknowledge one's powerlessness over the substance and that one's life has become unmanageable. 

U

Ups/Uppers
Drugs that produce a euphoric effect (e.g. stimulants, amphetamines)

Urge-Peak Cycle
Ongoing urge-peaks, usually followed by relapse

Urge-Peak
A sudden, unpredictable increase in addiction cravings; they usually involve temporary mental unawareness (e.g. not realizing the amount of drinks one has had)

Urges
Less powerful desires than cravings; can be suppressed by willpower

User
Outdated term used to describe one who misuses alcohol or drugs
W
Withdrawal
The abrupt decrease in or removal of one's regular dosage of a psychoactive substance

Withdrawal Symptoms

Severe and excruciating physical and emotional symptoms that generally occur between 4 to 72 hours after opiate withdrawal (e.g., watery eyes, yawning, loss of appetite, panic, insomnia, vomiting, shaking, irritability, jitters, etc.)

Withdrawal Syndrome
Combined reactions or behaviors that result from the abrupt cessation of a drug one is dependent on